The main factors influencing the development of Light and Ultra Light General Aviation
- LA / ULA GA in the Republic of Moldova:
- the presence / absence of a link between the future “ LA / ULA GA”, its types of activities, with the economic, social and cultural perspectives of the country;
- the existing legislative framework of the country, which reflects / does not reflect the possibility of realizing the potential, the different types of activities of GA aircrafts and the availability of legal procedures for GA users in the field of application and operation of GA aircrafts;
- high / low payment capacity of the population in the country, because the quantitative distribution of LA / ULA GA on the territory of the country is directly dependent on the deposits of the population in territories (districts, regions) of deposits (average indicator can be considered 81.5 million US dollars / 63.2 million euros for 1 LA / ULA class aircraft / helicopter);
- the presence / absence of a favorable climate for investments in the "LA / ULA GA" infrastructure in the country;
- high / low customs duties for imports into the country LA / ULA GA and components therefor, as well as the size of the tax quotas for different types of use of LA / ULA GA aircrafts;
- the presence / absence of state co-financing of interest rates on leasing of "general aviation - light and ultra-light" aircraft used in the economic and aviation-sports life of the country;
- the continuous trend of increasing the cost of LA / ULA GA of foreign manufacture;
- possibility / lack of possibility to use LA / ULA GA sfor commercial purposes, at least within aeronautical leisure organizations;
- the presence / absence of "light aviation" aircrafts in the country, including in joint ventures;
- the presence / absence of acceptable air infrastructure and technical staff for the GA.
1. "The GA is the basis for the promotion and development of civil aviation in Europe as a whole!" (European Flight Safety Strategy AG, document MD-3-2012 of 30.08.2012).
2. World statistics state that if there is no "light air force" in the country, then in 10-15 years "big aviation" will degrade!).
Conclusions from the analysis of the main factors influencing the development of General Light and Ultra Light Aviation LA / ULA GA in the Republic of Moldova:
- without linking the future use of the LA / ULA GA RM with the economic, social and cultural prospects of the Republic of Moldova - "light aviation / GA" will not be raised!
- Without the legislative basis of the Republic of Moldova, which would reflect the possibility of realizing the potential of different types of GA aircraft activities and ensure the accessibility for GA Users of legislative procedures in the field of operation of GA aircrafts, "light aviation / GA" cannot be developed!
- without the emergence of a middle class in the country, without taking into account in the country's legislation the importance of the use and operation of the peculiarities of light aircraft and ultralight aircraft - "aviation" can not be developed! (Therefore, it is very important for the state to create favorable conditions for the emergence of a middle class of the population, ie favorable conditions for business activity and sustainability);
- if the state does not invest its funds in the development of GA activity - the development of “light aviation / GA” will take place, first, in those areas where the deposits of the population of the Republic of Moldova will be higher than the above average indicator;
- air infrastructure for GA activities, at the expense of the state, should be created in those areas where the deposits of the population of the Republic of Moldova will be higher than the above average indicator;
- the degree of development of all types of activities LA / ULA GA RM, including the aeronautics-sports sector, will depend on the favorable investment climate in "light aviation / GA", the creation of preferential customs duties for LA / ULA GA RM and tax rates preferential for their use;
- the degree of development of "light aviation / GA", at interregional level, will depend on the business activity of the population, public aviation organizations and the state;
- creation of preferential conditions for legal entities and individuals producing LA / ULA GA aircraft in the Republic of Moldova.
The main tasks, the solution of which will ensure the development of "light aviation / GA" of the Republic of Moldova and ways to solve them.
1. Main tasks:
- approval of the strategy and program for the development of "light aviation", as well as the concept of using the LA / ULA GA in different sectors of the economic, social, cultural life of the state and its population;
- adjusting the legal framework in the field of GA, taking into account global trends, ie the creation and / or addition of rules, standards, aviation regulations, administrative and operational procedures, a flight safety control system, rules and procedures for investigating aviation accidents related to the operation and the use of unmanned aerial vehicles and LA / ULA GA, aviation security elements in the GA, etc .;
- the provision of fiscal and customs privileges by the state to LA / ULA GA and owners of infrastructure organizations operating in the field of LA / ULA GA;
- creation of simplified rules for the registration of entrepreneurial activities by LA / ULA operators in the GA and allocation of land for take-off-landing LA / ULA GA / launching points for paragliders, hang gliders and hot air balloons;
- the creation of a system of financial support from the state concerned for the most significant, for the country and its regions, projects with the use of LA / ULA GA, provided that the state itself and / or the sponsors become the founders of these projects;
- establishing the list of objects and subjects subject to authorization by CAA RM, as well as delegating a number of competencies of CAA RM to administer certain types of motorized and non-motorized LA / ULA GA;
- determining the competencies, requirements and responsibilities for public aviation organizations at the republican level, as well as for aviation recreational organizations operating in the field of LA / ULA GA, as well as establishing procedures for control and supervision of their activities by CAA RM;
- the creation, at republican level, of independent aeronautical sports, authorized by CAA RM, structures (aviation sports federations), the organization of specific sports activities on LA / ULA GA and the management of their subsystems (aviation clubs, Users), as well as is responsible for: the development of an aviation sport, the creation of a sports base for the use of LA / ULA GA, the regulation of the elements that ensure the high quality operation of aviation sport and its subsystems, including for the performance of supervisory and control functions, safe use of LA / ULA GA;
- determining the competencies, requirements and responsibilities for public aviation organizations operating as aeronautical leisure organizations or aviation sports organizations, as well as the procedure for controlling and supervising their activities;
- introduction of a system of private instructors, examiners, technical and medical experts, dispatchers, coordinators at take-off and landing sites and GA starting points, depending on the LA / ULA GA category;
- improvement of the “Register of Civil Aircraft of the Republic of Moldova”, completing it with a part that refers only to LA / ULA GA, non-complex, with MTOW less than 2730 kg;
- creation of the "Register of paragliders and hang gliders" at public aviation and sports organizations, at the republican level (ie paragliders and hang gliders should be removed from the "Register of Civil Aircraft of the Republic of Moldova");
- creation, within existing aircraft maintenance organizations, as well as with airlines, technical and sports aeronautical clubs, aeronautical clubs, etc. - LA / ULA GA airworthiness maintenance and extension centers;
- improving unified databases of aviation personnel and aircraft in 'light aviation / GA' structures;
- three-level system training for aviation personnel for "light aviation / GA" (including: level 1 - training of non-commercial aircraft personnel; level 2 - training for non-commercial LA personnel with MTOW not exceeding 2730 kg; level 3 - training for commercial LA and ULA personnel with the issuance of nationally valid certificates for these aircrafts). The level of training, at what level to start training - should be determined by the objectives of continued use of the aircraft;
Note: Obtaining licenses for aviation personnel to perform international flights and / or flights as a commercial pilot, for persons holding a national certificate, is possible only after they have completed (or their additional training) in certified aviation educational institutions (academies, universities), Training Centers GA).
- improving the procedures for mutual recognition of relevant certificates of aviation specialists obtained abroad;
- improving the procedures for obtaining official meteorological and aeronautical information by LA / ULA GA operators;
- determining the level of organization of the elements related to aviation security during LA / ULA GA flights on non-certified aerodromes (take-off-landing sites, launch points);
- creation of a unified center for search-rescue flights with LA / ULA GA on the territory of the Republic of Moldova;
- creation in the Republic of Moldova of a structure that provides LA / ULA GA with the necessary types of fuel.
2. Modalities of solutions that contribute to the development of the necessary "light aviation" by the state:
- the characteristics, trends, multifunctionality and importance for civil society and the state of affairs of “light aviation / GA”, to be reflected in the “Strategy for the development of civil aviation in the Republic of Moldova”;
- to make additions, taking into account the operation and use of LA / ULA GA, in the laws of the Republic of Moldova: “air defense”, “on aviation security”, “on customs”, “on the border of state "," on education "," on entrepreneurship "," on insurance "," on national security "," on the Department of Emergency Situations "," on public organizations "," on sports federations "," on licensing ", in the" Fiscal Code "," Criminal Code "," Administrative Code ", in the" Regulation on the use of the airspace of the Republic of Moldova "and in the" Regulation on the activities of the interdepartmental management committee the use of the airspace of the Republic of Moldova ";
- complete and implement a set of aviation rules governing the use and operation of LA / ULA GA, taking into account additions and amendments to the Air Code of the Republic of Moldova and the above laws and regulations of the Republic of Moldova;
- determining the source, volume, procedure of financial support by the state of public aeronautical and aviation sports organizations in the Republic of Moldova. (Examples: deduction for the needs of aviation sports in the Republic of Moldova of EUR 0.1 from airport taxes; or deduction of 2% of taxes imposed on natural or legal persons working in the aviation industry for the purpose of sponsoring aviation clubs; performing leisure flights for a fee , contributions to the FAI at the expense of the state, attracting foreign public and private investment to provide financial support to high-ranking aviation athletes and aviation clubs of republican importance, state support for private entrepreneurs investing their funds in the development of " LA / ULA GA”; state support in important sectors of the economic, social and cultural life of the country, etc.);
- develop procedures for the admission of users and LA / ULA GA to commercial flights;
- improve the procedures for registration and use of infrastructure and personnel components used for LA / ULA GA flights (runways, maintenance centers for LA / ULA GA, aeronautical and ethnic personnel for LA / ULA GA with MTOV up to 2730 kg for non-commercial activities and commercial, experts and medical staff on different types of LA / ULA GA, examiners);
- establish the list of minimum mandatory equipment for the different types of LA / ULA GA required to ensure an acceptable level of flight safety for all aircraft in the airspace of the Republic of Moldova (radio stations, satellite navigators, transponders, emergency radio beacons, systems collision warning with other aircraft, etc.);
- complete the procedures for applying sanctions for administrative violations in the operation and use of LA / ULA GA (for what, how much, by whom, how, etc.);
- determine the organization and search-and-rescue procedures for LA / ULA GA flying in the airspace of the "G" Class "RM";
- to complete or develop requirements for public aeronautical and aviation sports organizations authorized by the CAA of the Republic of Moldova or public aeronautical organizations authorized and aviation sports (aeronautical sports federations, aviation clubs, aviation associations, etc.), individuals (instructors, experts , examiners), as well as the establishment of their rights and responsibilities for the organization of flights, the appropriate types of LA / ULA GA, the issuance of airworthiness documents for these aircraft, the training of aviation personnel, compliance with flight safety and aviation security requirements, record keeping of LA / ULA GA, organization of competitions aviation;
- creation of a training system for aviation technical personnel for the operation of LA / ULA GA, dispatchers, runway coordinators for LA / ULA GA;
- based on the Aeronautical Training Center AG RM, together with the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova, to conduct research on the use of LA / ULA GA in areas such as medical aviation, agriculture, forestry, real estate cadastre, environmental protection, search-rescue, border monitoring, roads , power lines, etc .;
- creating a procedure for the registration and use of sports aerodromes, take-off and landing sites, launch points for non-motorized ultralight aircraft;
- based on one of the secondary schools in Chisinau, the creation of a "Center for scientific and technical training of young people in the field of aviation" and a "school for young pilots".